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Standing waves     

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Standing wave phenomena occur when the incident and reflected x-ray beams constructively interfere with each other.  It is well known that when two traveling wave solutions are superposed upon each other a standing wave solution is generated, with twice the electric field vector.  Since the intensity is proportional to the electric field2, any fluorescence x-rays emitted from the standing wave region can be increased by a factor of 4 (but this increase is usually less due to absorption effects).

from:  R. Klockenkaemper et al. Analytical Chemistry 64, 1115 (1992).

For our experimental setup, the standing waves enhance the fluorescence intensities seen by the detector and therefore lead to better detection limits.

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Last modified: January 26, 2007