Structure test results from SLAC (NLCTA) show breakdown and damage at gradients well below expectations from single cavity tests. The papers and presentations listed here illustrate some recent work on the topic. SLAC meeting notes are found here.


Overview - Basic understanding of the role of particulate contaminants (Hasan Padamsee, PAC97)


Literature study - Field emission and high voltage breakdown - (presentation by D. Burke 1996)


                        References listed in D. Burke summary:



Breakdown in S-band structures (Loew and Wang 1988)

High Gradient studies in structures (Loew and Wang 1990)

High Gradient tests (Wang 1994)

Properties of Periodic Accelerating Structures for Linear Colliders (Wang 1989)

Field emission in high gradient structures - (Loew and Wang -School 1997)

Field emission in copper structures - (Loew and Wang 1989)

Breakdown and field emission - (Loew and Wang 1989)


High Power Structure Processing in NLCTA (Adolphsen 2000)





Emission from contaminated cathodes (Jimenez 1993)

Projection model of field emission (Jimenez 1994)


Cornell (see SRF group)


Correlations between successive breakdown events (Xu and Latham 1994)





General papers


Field emission in RF cavities (Bonin CAS 1996)

Origins of breakdown (Karetnikov 1997)

(Fowler and Nordheim 1928)




Fabrication and conditioning (Higo 1997)

Copper cell RF breakdown studies (Laurent 2000)




Power devices

Breakdown in x-band klystron cavities (Xu 1997)

Breakdown phenomena in klystrons (Vlieks 1988)

X-band TWT (Haimson)



(LNS SRF group)

The quest for high gradient SC cavities (Padamsee 1997)

The nature of field emission from particles and ensuing breakdown (Padamsee and Knobloch 1998)

Explosive field emitter processing in SRF (Knobloch and Padamsee 1998)

Field emission of placed emitters (Wynn and Kapner 1998)

Microscopic examination of defects located using temperature probes (Knobloch 1996)

Thermometry study (Knobloch thesis 1997)


Light emission phenomena (Delayen 1999)

Experience with high pressure water rinsing (Kneisel 1995?)



Dark Current

Dark Current (Matsumoto 1996)

Dark Current simulations (Akasaka 1996)



RF Breakdown - gasses

Low pressure gas (Lisovskiy 1998)

Glow discharge simulation (Chung 1996)


Electrode preparation


Preparation of Copper electrodes (Kobayashi 1996)

Effects of Ozonized water treatment (Kobayashi 1999) 

Cleaning and conditioning (Cuneo - SANDIA 1998)

HIP Structure fabrication (Matsumoto 1991)